How to identify owls

, 14 January 2024
How to identify owls
Barn Owl © Andy Rouse/2020VISION

Owls are some of our most captivating birds. Their love of hunting at dawn, dusk and even in the dark gives them a sense of mystery. 

With a good view, it’s easy to tell an owl from any other bird of prey thanks to their large head with big, forward-facing eyes. But how do you tell one owl from another? Here’s our guide to the five species you’re likely to spot in the Sussex.

Barn Owl

A very pale, slender owl, typically white on the underparts and golden-brown with grey markings on the upperparts. It has a white, heart-shaped facial disk with dark eyes. This, and its pale plumage, separate it from any other resident owl. Usually seen over grassland or farmland.

In flight, often gives the impression of a large white bird. Most often seen at dawn and dusk, though can be seen at night or even hunting during the day. Flies back and forth over fields.

The Barn Owl calls with eerie squeals and a shrieking 'shreeee'. Take a listen...

Tawny Owl

A mostly brown, fairly compact owl with a large, rounded head. A little larger than a Barn Owl and usually seen in woodland. The plumage is mottled brown but can vary from greyish to reddish brown. The facial disk is mostly plain, with a narrow, darker wedge extending down between the large black eyes.

In flight, shows broad, rounded wings. It has a very direct flight with quick wingbeats and long, straight glides, often only flying short distances from tree to tree. Likes to hunt from perches, swooping down to prey on the ground. Largely nocturnal and rarely seen flying during the day.

The Tawny Owl has a rich repertoire of calls. Listen out for the short 'ke-wik' contact call and the quavering 'hoo, hu-hooo' advertising call.

Short-eared Owl

A sandy-brown owl similar in size to a tawny owl, but with longer wings. The upperparts are mostly yellowish-brown with darker streaks, whilst the underparts are a paler yellow with dark streaks on the breast. The facial disk is a pale whitish or yellowish-brown, with a well-defined border. There are dark patches surrounding the piercing yellow eyes, as if the owl were wearing a lot of black eyeshadow! The Short-eared Owl has short ‘ear-tufts’ on top of the head, though they are usually barely visible.

In flight, shows long, narrow wings. Compared to the similar long-eared owl, the wings are slightly longer and more slender, with solid black wingtips – as if they have been dipped in ink. It has a streaked breast, but a pale, un-marked belly, and thick dark barring on the tail. It also shows a white trailing edge to the upper wing. Flies with slow wingbeats and wavering glides. Often hunts during the day, as well as at night. Breeds mainly on moorland, but found more widely in winter when migrants arrive from the continent.

The Short-eared Owl is rarely heard away from its breeding grounds, where males sometimes perform display flights, giving a fast series of deep hoots as well as short, quick wing-claps. Other calls are rasping barks, which are given in a quick series when birds are alarmed, like this one...

Long-eared Owl

A streaky brown owl that looks very similar to a Short-eared Owl. It has generally darker feathers, with less of a yellow hue than short-eared owl. The facial disk is buff with a well-defined blackish border, with white ‘eyebrows’ extending down towards the beak. The eyes are deep orange and only have a little bit of black feathering around the inner edge – it doesn’t surround the eye, as in short-eared owl. There are long, obvious ‘ear-tufts’ on the top of the head, though these can be lowered and less conspicuous.

In flight, can be tricky to separate from Short-eared Owl. Slightly shorter and more blunt-tipped wings, with fine black barring on the wingtips (compared with the solid black wingtips of Short-eared Owl). The dark streaking on the breast extends down over the belly, giving a darker appearance to the underside. The dark barring on the tail is finer than in Short-eared Owl, and there is no white trailing edge to the upper wing.

Long-eared Owl is typically a nocturnal hunter but can sometimes be seen hunting during the day, so seeing an ‘eared’ owl hunting in daylight hours doesn’t automatically make it a Short-eared Owl. In winter, resident birds are joined by migrants from further east. Forms communal roosts, which can be very sensitive to disturbance so should be viewed from a distance.

The male Long-eared Owl advertises with deep, soft hoots with no inflection, given in a regular series with a hoot every few seconds. Sometimes gives weak wing-claps as it flies over its territory. The female has a more nasal call. The begging call of chicks can be heard from a great distance: high pitched squeaks like the hinges of a rusty gate...

Little Owl

A small, compact owl with a rather flattened crown. The upperparts are dark brown with whitish streaks and spots, which are large on the back but fine on the head. There are larger whitish markings that give the impression of a false face on the back of the head. The underparts are whitish with bold brown streaks. The facial disk is greyish brown with prominent whitish ‘eyebrows’ that give it a stern expression. The eyes are yellow.

Flies with a fast, bounding flight similar to a thrush, though will take a more direct, flapping flight over short distances. Hunts by swooping down from a perch, but will also run across the ground in pursuit of prey. Most active at dawn and dusk, but can often be seen during the day.

The Little Owl has a variety of calls, including a fast 'chi-chi-chi' alarm call, a low-pitched hoot, and this mewling call...


Take Action for Wildlife 

With so many species on the red list and at risk of extinction, we need to do all we can to stand up for wildlife. One of the best actions you can take to help is by joining us as a member.


How to identify owls video

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Comments

  • Christine Field:

    Absolutely lovely thank you.

    13 Jan 2022 12:58:00

  • Rob Burt:

    What a Hoot!

    13 Jan 2022 13:10:00

  • Jenny Deadman:

    Loved the owl I.D., film and the choice of music was uplifting

    13 Jan 2022 13:46:00

  • Margaret Devitt:

    This excellent article enthused me enormously. Are there any owl watching groups planned in local woods this spring? I’d happily sit somewhere well wrapped up to listen & hopefully see one’

    13 Jan 2022 14:06:00

  • Tracy:

    Love this, thank you 🦉💚

    13 Jan 2022 14:11:00

  • Jean Woolridge:

    Delightful

    13 Jan 2022 14:12:00

  • Gregory Mumford:

    Really useful, still yet to spot the Tawny who we often hear close to our house.

    13 Jan 2022 15:50:00

  • Stephanie King:

    Great help, thank you.

    13 Jan 2022 15:55:00

  • Neil Clarke:

    What a fantastic article – there is just so much to learn ! Thank you

    13 Jan 2022 15:57:00

  • Claire Hilton:

    Love this – really helpful and great video

    13 Jan 2022 16:01:00

  • Lynn Staff:

    Wonderful. Thank you for this

    13 Jan 2022 16:07:00

  • Fiona Sommerville:

    This was so uplifting, thank you

    13 Jan 2022 16:43:00

  • P Martucci:

    Very enlightening thank you

    13 Jan 2022 17:33:00

  • Shuna Le Moine:

    Wonderful, wonderful 👏🏼
    Thank you so much.
    Now I just need to see one!

    Happy New Year to you all🥂

    13 Jan 2022 17:55:00

  • MR MARK DUNN:

    Very Helpful.

    13 Jan 2022 19:44:00

  • Marion Cox:

    Thank you

    13 Jan 2022 23:45:00

  • Andrew Morison:

    Very informative! I am lucky often falling asleep to the sound of Tawny Owls calling to each other. Several years ago when taking our dogs for their ‘good night’ piddle I heard a Tawny Owl hoot above me. On searching the tall Sweet Chestnut, near which I was standing, with my torch I saw a Tawny Owl standing on a branch well up the tree huddled up against the trunk. It was the thrill of a lifetime almost matching that of having a Barn Owl fly so low over me at dusk while standing by a pond that I could have stretched up my arm and touched it. I count myself a very lucky man.

    14 Jan 2022 03:50:00

  • Dawson Jacqueline:

    My favourite is the Long eared Owl! So regal!
    Very informative, Thank you.

    14 Jan 2022 07:25:00

  • Willow:

    Enjoyed that immensely thanks-I learnt a lot about appearance and sounds of different owls.

    14 Jan 2022 09:17:00

  • Jill Bavin:

    Really helpful and lovely to watch. The music was a great choice, too. Thank you.

    14 Jan 2022 09:54:00

  • Willow:

    Enjoyed that immensely thanks-I learnt a lot about appearance and sounds of different owls.

    14 Jan 2022 15:51:00

  • Andrew Morison:

    Very informative! I am lucky often falling asleep to the sound of Tawny Owls calling to each other. Several years ago when taking our dogs for their ‘good night’ piddle I heard a Tawny Owl hoot above me. On searching the tall Sweet Chestnut, near which I was standing, with my torch I saw a Tawny Owl standing on a branch well up the tree huddled up against the trunk. It was the thrill of a lifetime almost matching that of having a Barn Owl fly so low over me at dusk while standing by a pond that I could have stretched up my arm and touched it. I count myself a very lucky man.

    14 Jan 2022 17:09:00

  • AJAZ SHEIKH:

    Absolutely brilliant. Thanks for giving differentiating tips, that makes identification easy.My favourite is Barn Owl.

    14 Jan 2022 23:35:00

  • Mandy thorne:

    Such a lovely video, really informative and beautiful photography. Thank you.

    15 Jan 2022 16:05:00

  • Louise Tucker:

    This video confirms that we did indeed see a barn owl flying across the field behind our house at dusk – magical and ghostly!
    But the hollow whoo whoo sound we hear at night doesn’t quite match any of the sound clips – could you suggest which one it might be?

    Answer: Likely to be a Tawny Owl

    15 Jan 2022 23:21:00

  • P Martucci:

    Very enlightening thank you

    17 Jan 2022 17:27:00

  • Marion Cox:

    Thank you

    17 Jan 2022 21:11:00

  • Paul Robards:

    I spend a lot of my spare time out with my camera looking for owls. Not a great success rate unfortunately. What I think are good locations, but no sightings. They are either very rare or I am just unlucky. Still I’ll keep trying..

    19 Jan 2022 07:23:00

  • Jenny Davies:

    A real treat!! Thankyou very much.

    19 Jan 2022 15:31:43

  • Verena Leppard:

    Some years ago we had a tawny owl nesting in one of the trees in our garden.
    So pleased to report that we were able to photograph them at the time of fledging.

    18 Jan 2024 11:59:00

  • Shirley Ford:

    Really enjoyed recognising owls video. Thank you.

    18 Jan 2024 12:12:00

  • Kate Cameron:

    Thank you so much – i think we have a short eared owl visiting currently. We generally hear Barn & Tawny owls from time to time.

    18 Jan 2024 12:20:00

  • Ray kent:

    Brilliant
    Thank you

    18 Jan 2024 12:45:00

  • Gail Greaves:

    Thanks for all the really useful and thorough videos on bird and animal identification, though I seem to forget most of it and have to revisit frequently, the joys of ageing!!

    18 Jan 2024 13:11:00

  • Stephen WISE:

    Excellent. Thank you

    18 Jan 2024 13:34:00

  • David Phillips:

    Wonderful birds and an excellent and useful article.In response to the one query try looking up the Sussex Barn Owl Study Group ( SBOSG ) – may still be looking for volunteers to get involved.

    18 Jan 2024 14:02:00

  • Lynne James:

    Thanks. Owls are m y favourite birds. But we don’t see any in the coastal area around Bognor.

    18 Jan 2024 15:02:00

  • Colin Britt:

    Enjoy identify owls great descriptions thanks

    18 Jan 2024 15:09:00

  • Fiona:

    Thank you for this. Fantastic! I’ve recently moved to Ore, backing onto Speckled woods and can sometimes hear an owl in the evening and when I go to bed. It was fun trying to identify which one I’m hearing! Tawny or long eared maybe….I’ll be coming to this guide next time I hear it! :)

    18 Jan 2024 15:23:00

  • Mr Antony Penrose:

    Congratulations – a beautiful and informative summary. Thank you

    18 Jan 2024 15:27:00

  • Pat Savidge:

    Wonderful photographs and informative video. Thank you. Great music too!

    18 Jan 2024 16:58:00

  • Deryn Watts:

    Very helpful and delightful to watch

    18 Jan 2024 17:05:00

  • Alison:

    Brilliant – thank you so much

    18 Jan 2024 17:19:00

  • Maz:

    A delight as always – thank you !

    18 Jan 2024 17:21:00

  • Margo:

    Lovely presentation, and music, too! Thank you

    18 Jan 2024 17:28:00

  • Andy Maby:

    A great owl identification page (wish I could share it). Thank you!

    18 Jan 2024 18:31:00

  • Barbara Agent:

    Lovely film .thank you.

    18 Jan 2024 18:34:00

  • J Ford-Robertson:

    Very good, but lacking in size clues and food preferences. Little Owls in New Zealand are adept insectivores, for instance.

    18 Jan 2024 18:57:00

  • Trevor Higton:

    Thank you for this article and accompanying information. I hope it will encourage all who see it to treasure and respect our native wildlife.

    18 Jan 2024 19:29:00

  • Katherine arnold:

    Thank you – really helpful. We probably have different sorts of owls here in alFRISTON I now reaslise

    18 Jan 2024 19:45:00

  • Lovely to have the call recordings, just sad they nearly all contain traffic noise, that’s not a criticism just a fact of life, it’s hard to find spots where you can’t hear the noise of road vehicles

    18 Jan 2024 21:48:00

  • Rosario Gutierrez Briones:

    They are the nicest creatures ever. Thank you for the tips.
    Spectacular way of flying.

    18 Jan 2024 21:51:00

  • Eileen Hubbard:

    Wonderful way of helping to identify by their calls. Thank you

    19 Jan 2024 00:13:00

  • David Phillips:

    Wonderful birds and an excellent and useful article.In response to the one query try looking up the Sussex Barn Owl Study Group ( SBOSG ) – may still be looking for volunteers to get involved.

    19 Jan 2024 08:07:00

  • Sheila Ferrier:

    Beautiful. Wish the video was a touch slower so my little brain could take more of the information in!! Would be great for schoolchildren to see too. Thank you.

    19 Jan 2024 08:45:00

  • Jill stogdon:

    I hear owls on my land but have never seen 9ne . Can I identify by sound?

    19 Jan 2024 08:54:00

  • Sussex Wildlife Trust:

    Yes you can, the blog includes common calls from these owl species. You could also try the Merlin app to identify the calls

  • Michael Thompson:

    Superb film about Owls.
    Excellent articles about our native Owls.
    Wonderful to hear their calls.

    Thank you. Congratulations to all Who
    Produce such fantastic work.

    Please keep it going —— and give us more !!!
    Thank you

    19 Jan 2024 11:51:00

  • Ray kent:

    Brilliant
    Thank you

    19 Jan 2024 14:24:00

  • Michael Evans:

    Thank you. Information extremely useful for me, a city guy now living deep in the West Sussex woodland. It appears that all of the subject birds share my property!

    19 Jan 2024 15:29:00

  • Sheila Minet:

    Lovely, instructive video. I had a wonderful close encounter once with a tawny owl who fell down a chimney into an empty room . I put a cloth over it, and it sat on my wrist as I let it go out of the door into the garden; and it turned and looked me full in the face before flying off. Unforgettable!

    19 Jan 2024 16:32:00

  • Mel Edge:

    What a helpful post and a lovely video.

    19 Jan 2024 18:33:00

  • Sue Foley:

    Brilliant post and film and recordings about owls thank you

    20 Jan 2024 08:37:00

  • Pauline Martin:

    Very good I teresting andenjoyable

    20 Jan 2024 08:58:00

  • Frances Exley:

    Excellent clear and informative with a brilliant identification video to summarise. Loved the choice of music accompanying the main identifying characteristics. Made me smile. I will revisit this I know.
    Thank you.

    20 Jan 2024 14:32:00

  • Wendy:

    Absolutely excellent. Thank you – well worth my sub !!

    21 Jan 2024 13:17:00

  • Peter Frederick Allen:

    I really appreciate your informative and colourful emails. Keep them coming (please)!

    26 Jan 2024 12:31:00

  • Sussex Wildlife Trust:

    Glad you are enjoying our emails Peter. If anyone would like to receive to our regular emails, please sign-up here

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